Rather, Black Seminoles appear to have drawn most of their customs from the slave cultures of the Deep South with traces directly from Africa. In a legacy of the plantations, for instance, weddings featured a broom-jumping ceremony. A host of practices echoed Africa, such as the use of African names, ring-shouts, and call-and-response forms of worship. The importation of African slaves did not become illegal in the U.S. until 1807, and
the continent was a living memory for many members of John Horse's community.
Foster 51-59, Simmons 44, Mulroy 22-23.
Part 1, Early Years: l