Rebellion 1800 - 1835     
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The Old Plantation
"The Old Plantation," illustration from between 1790 and 1800. Scholars are uncertain as to events depicted in the painting, but it is possibly one of the few period illustrations showing a 'jumping the broom' ceremony in South Carolina. The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Museum in Colonial Williamsburg.
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Afro-Indian Culture slide ticker

Rather, Black Seminoles appear to have drawn most of their customs from the slave cultures of the Deep South with traces directly from Africa. In a legacy of the plantations, for instance, weddings featured a broom-jumping ceremony. A host of practices echoed Africa, such as the use of African names, ring-shouts, and call-and-response forms of worship. The importation of African slaves did not become illegal in the U.S. until 1807, and the continent was a living memory for many members of John Horse's community.

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Sources: Foster 51-59, Simmons 44, Mulroy 22-23.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
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Seminole Slavery
Living Conditions
Afro-Indian Culture
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion