The two tribes were bitter enemies. Warriors on both sides still recalled the
two wars between 1813 and 1818, when Creeks joined with Jackson to defeat the
Seminoles.* Creeks massacred Black Seminoles at the Negro Fort in
1816 and led slave raids against them throughout the 1820s and 30s. The prospect of Creek incorporation was especially threatening to the
blacks, since Creeks held slaves on the southern model. It was widely known that they wanted to claim many Black Seminoles as their personal property, on the grounds of past treaties with the
Twyman 118, Simmons 41, Native American Treaty 103, ASPMA 6:454, Williams 239.
Part 2, War: l
*In the first conflict, the Creek War (1813-14), Jackson and his Coweta Creek allies defeated the Mikasukis, who subsequently joined the Seminole confederacy.
The second conflict was the First Seminole War (1817-18), when
William McIntosh and the Coweta Creeks again formed the
majority of Jackson's army.