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Rebellion 1834     
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Prelude to War Prelude to War
1829-1834: President Jackson drives the nation toward the Second Seminole War. (27 story panels)
Revenge Revenge
1835-1836: Two decades of tension erupt in violence, war, and servile insurrection. (47 story panels)
Deceit Deceit
1837: Jackson's new general pursues any means necessary to close the Second Seminole War. (45 story panels)
Liberty or Death Liberty or Death
1837-1838: Imprisoned, with all hope seemingly lost, John Horse tries the impossible. (41 story panels)
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War: 1832 - 1838

By the eve of the Second Seminole War, John Horse had begun to establish himself. He had livestock, property, and fields under cultivation. He was a father and tribal interpreter. Well known to white officers, he would have faced a promising future, except for one bleak reality: the advance of American slavery. By 1834, Florida residents were seeking ownership of more than 500 Black Seminoles, on dubious claims. Slaving parties were raiding the reservation, threatening to kidnap individual blacks and their families. President Jackson, meanwhile, had ordered that the Seminoles be moved west and incorporated with the Creeks, knowing full well that this would subject the maroons to southern-style slavery.

War seemed inevitable. When it came, John Horse would prove a daring and skilled warrior. But in the dark times ahead, his people would need more than a warrior.

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Sources: Littlefield Seminoles 36, Twyman 119-20, Giddings Exiles 90-91, Mahon 93.
Note: The 160 story panels of this section draw on the best overall research into the Second Seminole War and all of its participants, white, Indian, and black, but the site highlights the role of Black Seminoles and black participants in in the Second Seminole War. For information on the rationale for this perspective, see the "Extended introduction: An historical preface to the Second Seminole War." Readers interested in the Second Seminole War may also enjoy the list of other Web resources on Seminole Indians & the Seminole Wars. Suggestions for new resources or for corrections to the site are always invited.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion

Sidetrack(s)

Extended introduction:
An historical preface to the Second Seminole War

Other routes

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