Rebellion 1832 - 1835     
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William Pope Duval
William Pope Duval, territorial governor of Florida after Andrew Jackson. Detail of a nineteenth-century portrait. Florida Photographic Collection.
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According to white observers, one of the main obstacles to emigration was the status of the Black Seminoles. Governor William DuVal expressed a common perception when he wrote that:

"Slaves belonging to the Indians have a controlling influence over them and are utterly opposed to any change of residence. No treaty can be enforced as long as these Blacks are present, every Indian who seeks to stay will run from them."

Lt. Sprague captured the same idea when he wrote that Abraham,

"[D]ictated to those of his own color, who to a great degree controlled their masters. They were a most cruel and malignant enemy. For them to surrender would be servitude to the whites; but to retain an open warfare, secured to them plunder, liberty, and importance."

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Sources: ASPMA 6: 458, Williams 239-40, Sprague Origin 100.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
Jackson's Rise
Payne's Landing
Creek Country
Seminole Outrage
Before the Storm
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Did Seminole slaves have a "controlling influence" over their Indian masters?