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Rebellion November 1836     
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John Horse
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Detail of John Horse. Engraving by N. Orr for Sprague's 1848 history of the Florida war.
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John Horse would not make his definitive mark for another year, but already he was gaining attention as a warrior. His actions on the Withlacoochee earned him the sobriquet "Hokepis Hejo" or Crazy Beast, meaning "his heart is recklessly brave." The ranks of the black fighters had swelled with plantation runaways, and surely these men admired John Horse, the "Seminole Negro" known for his crack shot, knowledge of Indian ways, and even -- we are told -- his skills as a traditional doctor.

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Sources: Tucker 77-8, Wilhelm 1: 154.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
spacer spacer War Erupts
"Massacre"
Withlacoochee
Key Actors
Florida
Slave Uprising
Army Response
National Mood
Distractions
Seminole Success
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion