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Rebellion January 27 to February 1, 1837     
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Ben Bruner, Black Seminole
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"Ben Bruno, Negro Interpreter and Favorite," engraving published in 1858. Bruno was not the same Ben associated with Micanopy, but rather an ally of Billy Bowlegs, the chief who rose to prominence during the Third Seminole War. Florida Photographic Collection
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Hostages

The hostages included members of Micanopy's household, among them the chief's beloved slave Ben. Using Ben as a hostage, Jesup pressed for negotiations. But he did not seek to negotiate with Micanopy himself. Instead, he arranged a parley with the chief's interpreter and "sense bearer," the Black Seminole leader Abraham. In keeping with his assertion that this was a "Negro, not an Indian war," Jesup was negotiating first with the leader of the blacks.

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Sources: ASPMA 7: 828, Childs 2: 373, Sprague Origin 172.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
spacer spacer General Jesup
Jesup's Tactics
Hostages
The Diplomat
Peace
Slaveholders
Betrayal
Escape
Rage
White Flags
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion