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Rebellion May 1837     
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Romantic depiction of Osceola
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Osceola, in one of the more fanciful engravings that sprang from his legendary status in the mid-19th century. Florida Photographic Collection.
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Betrayal

The militants were enraged when they learned of Coa Hadjo's deal. Osceola said that as long as he was in the nation, such treachery would never be allowed. John Horse must have seen it as the confirmation of his worst fears about the March treaty. John Horse's own status was not in jeopardy, since he was known to be "the bona fide property" of the Seminole Indian Charles Cavallo. Other members of the community were not so fortunate. The status of recent runaways, and even some established "Seminole Negroes," was suddenly in serious doubt. Coa Hadjo had already rounded up almost two hundred blacks and surrendered them to the Army. More were sure to follow. The betrayal cried out for response.

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Sources: Porter "Osceola" 237, Porter Negro 279, Kieffer 167.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
spacer spacer General Jesup
Jesup's Tactics
Hostages
The Diplomat
Peace
Slaveholders
Betrayal
Escape
Rage
White Flags
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion