Rebellion April 4, 1838     
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Detail of John Horse, from the engraving by N. Orr, first published in 1848 in Sprague's The Origin, Progress, and Conclusion of the Florida War.
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John Horse's decision could not have been easy. He was being asked to part from his homeland, his friends, his way of life. He left no record of having a wife at the time, but he was said to have children, and he had a sister, Juana, who had already surrendered. Possibly the words of Abraham rang true for him as well,

"We do not live for ourselves only, but for our wives and children who are as dear to us as those of any other men."

History leaves no guide as to his thoughts and feelings. There remains only the barest record of his actions. On April 4th, Zachary Taylor wrote General Jesup:

"Alligator ... surrendered at Fort Bassinger on the 4th of April ... with 88 of his people ... [including] John Cowaya and 27 blacks."

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Sources: Porter Black 96, Mahon 238.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
spacer spacer Captivity
Noble Savages
Liberty or Death
Osceola's Death
Star of the Nation
Jesup's Proclamation
The Decision
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion