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Rebellion 1838 - 1842     
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Billy Bowlegs circa 1852
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Holata Mico, or Billy Bowlegs, as photographed in 1852. Florida Photographic Collection.
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The loss of their black allies weakened the remaining Seminoles, but by hiding deep in the Everglades, where white settlers showed no inclination of moving, the Indians were able to fend off the Army. Arpeika, Billy Bowlegs, and Coacoochee all led bands that successfully resisted encroachment and occasionally marauded white settlements. The Army would spend an additional $20-30 million (on top of $20-30 million already spent) in the futile attempt to dislodge them.

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Sources: Covington Seminoles 96-109, Coe 161.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
spacer spacer Captivity
Noble Savages
Resistance
Liberty or Death
Osceola's Death
Star of the Nation
Jesup's Proclamation
The Decision
Post-Script
Deportation
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion