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Rebellion November - December 1835     
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White Bluffs of Pensacola, by George Catlin
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"White Sand Bluffs, on Santa Rosa Island, near Pensacola." Oil painting by George Catlin, 1834-35. Smithsonian American Art Museum.
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Before the Storm slide ticker

If he was not recruiting plantation slaves, then John Horse may have been stationed near the coast, where Seminole allies carried on an illegal arms trade with Cuba and the Bahamas. The Black Seminoles had strong ties to the two regions. These ties were now vital, since Agent Thompson had forbidden the sale of ammunition to the tribe.

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Sources: Covington Seminoles 53, Mahon 47, 59, Sprague Origin 86.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
Jackson's Rise
Payne's Landing
Creek Country
Seminole Outrage
Osceola
Before the Storm
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion