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Rebellion March 6, 1837     
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Treatment of treaty language
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Contemporary rendering, language from the crucial fifth article in the Fort Dade agreement between Jesup and the Seminoles. 
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For the first time, a U.S. agreement acknowledged the legitimate existence of Africans among the Seminoles. Moreover, the document was careful to distinguish between their free black "allies" and their slaves, "their Negroes their bona fide property." President Jackson had ordered the Army to fight until all slaves claimed by white men were returned to their owners. Jesup reversed that order, in its place guaranteeing the security of these same contested blacks.

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Sources: Mahon 200, Twyman 73-149, Porter Black 77-78.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
spacer spacer General Jesup
Jesup's Tactics
Hostages
The Diplomat
Peace
Slaveholders
Betrayal
Escape
Rage
White Flags
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion

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Giddings describes the Articles as a victory for the Black Seminoles