Rebellion 1844 - 1845     
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Micanopy and Ben Bruno
Micanopy, head chief of the Seminoles, from the 1838 painting by Catlin, and Ben Bruno, Black Seminole interpreter, from an 1858 engraving. Smithsonian American Art Museum and Florida Photographic Collection.
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The African-Seminole alliance had flourished during two wars against the United States. Now, during peace, it was falling apart. According to John Horse, even the government subagent to the Seminoles "urged the Indians in open council, either to sell or make slaves of them again." Micanopy and Coacoochee were still friends of the blacks, but could these chiefs stave off the Creek influence?

Fearing the worst, blacks besieged the Army with efforts to establish their legal freedom. They brought scraps of paper, memories of military promises, ancient receipts. "The records of Fort Gibson and of the Seminole agency," writes Littlefield, "reveal the desperate struggle of many blacks to safeguard against a return to slave status."

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Sources: Porter Black 115, Littlefield Seminoles 101, Lancaster 68.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
spacer spacer Enemy to Ally
National Debate
Creek Tensions
Endangered Alliance
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion