Rebellion January 1, 1845     
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View of a Plains Indian camp in the western territory, circa 1853
Possibly the oldest known photographic image of a Native American camp in the Indian Territory, this daguerreotype is believed to show a Plains Indian village in Kansas circa 1853. Attributed to Solomon Carvalho and reproduced by the studio of Matthew Brady. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-110045.
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Appeals for Help

Out west, Coacoochee faced a difficult decision. He was disappointed by the treaty's limitations, but his Indian followers were destitute. The agreement would at least grant them their own lands, separate from the Creeks. Moreover, the treaty seemed to offer a concession with regard to the blacks. Under a special provision, any future disputes over property were to be referred to the President. Naively hopeful that this would work in the blacks' favor, Coacoochee signed the treaty.

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Sources: Littlefield Seminoles 90-91, Native American Treaty 236, Foreman Five 243, Kappler 2: 407.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
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"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion