Rebellion 1845 - 1846     
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The White House in 1846
South side of the White House as John Horse would have seen it in 1846. Daguerreotype created during Polk's administration, circa 1846, by John Plumbe. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-3595.
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Years later, John Horse said that he had personally presented the case of the Black Seminoles to President Polk. It would have been a fascinating meeting between the black freedom fighter and the pro-South expansionist known as "Little Hickory" for his devotion to Andrew Jackson. There are no records of such a visit, but the issue definitely made it before the President. Polk's subsequent actions confirmed this, as did Jesup's letter to the commander at Fort Gibson:

"John Cowayee ... [needs] to return to his family, leaving the business of himself and his people in my hands .... [T]he case of the Seminole Negroes is now before the President."

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Sources: Porter Black 118.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion