Years later, John Horse said that he had personally presented the case of the Black Seminoles to President Polk. It would have been a fascinating meeting between the black freedom fighter and the pro-South expansionist known as "Little Hickory" for his devotion to Andrew Jackson. There are no records of such a visit, but the issue definitely made it before the President. Polk's subsequent actions confirmed this, as did Jesup's letter to the commander at Fort Gibson:
"John Cowayee ... [needs] to return to his family, leaving the business of himself and his people in my hands
.... [T]he case of the Seminole Negroes is now before the President."
Sources: Porter Black 118.
Part 3, Exile: l