Rebellion May 1845     
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The Trail of Tears
"The Trail of Tears," painted by Robert Lindneux in 1942 to depict the Cherokee removal to the west. The Granger Collection.
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Other visitors asked Jackson about his legacy, including Indian removal, a subject that troubled Americans. By 1845, more than 46,000 Indians had been relocated west. The action gained an empire, but at a terrible cost. "I fought through the Civil War," said one soldier years later, "and have seen men shot to pieces and slaughtered by thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the cruelest I ever saw." 

Jackson knew the horrors of removal from the reports of military officers. They had been aghast at the suffering that the policy unleashed. To the end, Old Hickory defended the move on the grounds of economic and social necessity, even humanity toward the Indians. Yet, to the end, the questions would linger.

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Sources: Karsner 387, Remini 3: 302, 314.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion