Rebellion August 1, 1846     
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Dragoons on the Canadian River, by Catlin
U. S. dragoons on duty in the Indian Territory, detail from George Catlin's painting, "View of the Canadian River, Dragoons Crossing," painted in 1834-35. Smithsonian American Art Museum.
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Often, the defense of freedom required more than words. Throughout 1846-49, the Army was called into action to rescue Black Seminoles from slaving parties on the reservations. Sometimes the slavers dared to come onto the grounds of Fort Gibson itself. August 1, 1846 was an all too typical day, as described by Lieutenant Kirkham:

"[A] few days ago three men came & carried off a boy living in and under the protection of the Post, he was recovered by a party of Dragoons sent after them, but it keeps up a constant state of excitement & annoyance among the poor people."

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Sources: Littlefield Seminoles 114, Porter Black 122.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion