With Jumper's election, speculation in Black Seminoles suddenly ran rampant. By April, two-thirds of the black community had been promised or sold, either to whites or to slaveholding Indians from other tribes. Families and communities were put to auction, often on spurious claims. Some titles were sold for as little as a bottle of whiskey.
Sources: Mulroy 48, Littlefield Seminoles 128-30, Porter Black 123.
Part 3, Exile: l