Rebellion June - September 1849     
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Seminole firearms
Firearms of the Seminoles. As late as the 1840s, the Seminole allies were still using Spanish-era rifles and rifled muskets, in combination with rifles from U.S. traders. Pictured above, top to bottom: 1756 Spanish musket, 1763 French fusil made for the Indian trade, 1817 U.S. common rifle. Images courtesy of Track of the Wolf.
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Most importantly, at Wewoka the Black Seminoles refused to give up their arms. And the Army, despite repeated requests from Marcellus Duval, refused to disarm them. Over the coming months, white and Indian slavers tried to raid the Wewoka settlement, but under John Horse's leadership, the armed blacks drove them away. Marcellus Duval was furious, demanding that John Horse "should have been whipped at least" for one incident. Tensions were escalating. The situation could not last.

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Sources: Littlefield Seminoles 138-39, Porter Black 126-7, Mulroy 51-52, Foreman Five 259-60.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
spacer spacer Dark Prospects
New Frontier
Cross to Freedom
New Horizon
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion