Their most famous exploits took place under John L. Bullis and Ranald S.
Mackenzie, men who both became generals based on actions during the Texas Indian
Wars that drew heavily on the skills of the Black Seminoles. Under Bullis and
Mackenzie, Black Seminole scouts engaged in 26 lengthy expeditions against
hostiles from 1873-1881. Their actions were especially critical to the famous
Remolino raid in 1873, when they helped track and attack the Mexican-based
Kickapoos, whom the Black Seminoles knew from Nacimiento. The expedition turned
the tide in the Indian wars by demonstrating that Mexico could no longer be an
automatic safe haven for raiding parties.
Sources: Foster 47, Wallace 92-111.
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