Rebellion January 17, 1836     
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Brigadier General Joseph Hernandez
Brigadier General Joseph Hernandez. The former Spanish citizen transferred his allegiance to the United States after 1821. A wealthy planter, Hernandez became a prominent member of Florida society. He commanded the militia at the start of the war. Florida Photographic Collection.
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Brigadier General Joseph Hernandez called the black uprising "the very worst feature of this whole war." Commanding the Florida volunteers, the former Spanish citizen tried to hold a strong point at John von Bulow's plantation. But on January 17th, the Seminoles and their new slave allies routed Herndandez's militia unit, the St. Augustine Guards. The Seminoles inflicted fifty percent casualties. One white volunteer became so enraged that he scalped an Indian captive, later bragging that he kept the man's ears for trophies.

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Sources: Porter Negro 266, Mahon 99, 112.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
spacer spacer War Erupts
Key Actors
Slave Uprising
Army Response
National Mood
Seminole Success
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion