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Rebellion 1842 - 1843     
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Holata Mico, or Billy Bowlegs
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Seminole hold-out Holata Mico, or Billy Bowlegs, photographed in 1852. Florida Photographic Collection.
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Tustenuggee's anger was a sign of things to come. By 1843, the Army had induced almost 3900 Seminole Indians and 500 black allies to emigrate west. Many were lured with promises of land and freedom. What would happen if these promises were broken? It did not help that a contingent of Seminoles led by Billy Bowlegs never surrendered and was ultimately allowed to remain in Florida. If these militants could stay, why, many would wonder, had they agreed to leave?

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Sources: Mahon 321, Littlefield Seminoles 12.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
spacer spacer Enemy to Ally
Atrocities
National Debate
Prosperity
Emigration
Creek Tensions
Endangered Alliance
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion