Making matters worse for the Black Seminoles, a pro-Creek faction began to develop within the tribe. Led by
Jim Jumper, the pro-Creek Seminoles were willing to view blacks as human property, not just military allies. Jumper and a select group of other Seminoles said that they had come west believing that they would be secure in their property. This argument rang true with neighboring slaveholders, white and Indian, even if it violated Jesup's proclamation and the Seminole tradition.
For the blacks, it was as if the problems of Florida had simply moved with them to the west. In a sense this was
true, since the institution of American slavery was the ultimate cause of the Black Seminoles'
Lancaster 83, Mulroy 38-39, Littlefield Seminoles
103, Lancaster 108-10, 134-35.
Part 3, Exile: l