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Rebellion 1842     
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John Jumper

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Seminole Chief John Jumper, who, like his brother Jim, became a prominent leader within the pro-slavery faction of the Seminole tribe. Photographer and date unknown. Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Historic Preservation Office.

More on John Jumper

Like his brother Jim, John Jumper was prominent within the pro-slavery faction of the tribe. He assumed leadership of the Oklahoma Seminoles when his brother died in the early 1850s. In 1861, over the wishes of some of the Seminoles, Jumper signed a treaty with the Confederacy. He rose to the rank of Colonel in the Confederate forces. Today he is revered for his actions in 1856, concluding the treaty that finally granted the Seminoles separate legal status from the Creeks.
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Creek Tensions

Making matters worse for the Black Seminoles, a pro-Creek faction began to develop within the tribe. Led by Jim Jumper, the pro-Creek Seminoles were willing to view blacks as human property, not just military allies. Jumper and a select group of other Seminoles said that they had come west believing that they would be secure in their property. This argument rang true with neighboring slaveholders, white and Indian, even if it violated Jesup's proclamation and the Seminole tradition. 

For the blacks, it was as if the problems of Florida had simply moved with them to the west. In a sense this was true, since the institution of American slavery was the ultimate cause of the Black Seminoles' problems.

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Sources: Lancaster 83, Mulroy 38-39, Littlefield Seminoles 103, Lancaster 108-10, 134-35.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
spacer spacer Enemy to Ally
Atrocities
National Debate
Prosperity
Emigration
Creek Tensions
Endangered Alliance
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion