Rebellion 1842     
spacerHomespacer spacerOverviewspacer spacerTrail Narrativespacer spacerHighlightsspacer spacerMapsspacer spacerResourcesspacer spacerImagesspacer spacer

Roly McIntosh, aka Roley Macintosh, Creek chief

Roly McIntosh, chief of the Lower Creeks from 1828-1859. McIntosh held many slaves at his plantation on the Arkansas River. Like his half-brother William McIntosh, he was a prominent ally of Andrew Jackson and enemy of the Black Seminoles. Oklahoma Historical Society.
View an image enlargement
Previous slide Next slide
Next sidetrack
Creek Tensions slide ticker

Out west, Creek leaders were anxious to bring the blacks under their tribal laws. Under Chief Roly McIntosh, Creeks argued that no matter what General Jesup had said, the maroons were still human property, and as such they could be sold or claimed by their rightful owners. Not surprisingly, some Creeks miraculously produced titles to individual blacks. Others made claims based on archaic treaties and unfulfilled promises from the U.S. government. An age-old tension was resurfacing in Oklahoma.

Previous slidespacerspacer

Sources: Mulroy 35-36, Lancaster 37-41, ASPMA 6: 454, Twyman 118, Littlefield Seminoles 68-91, Coe 166-67.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
spacer spacer
 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
spacer spacer Enemy to Ally
National Debate
Creek Tensions
Endangered Alliance
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Creek slave codes