Rebellion 1800 - 1835     
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Seminole Koonti Strainer
Engraving of a Seminole Koonti strainer, from Clayton MacCauley's 1887 report, The Seminole Indians of Florida.
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The culture that John Horse was born into was an evolving mixture of African, Indian, Spanish, and slave traditions. Maroons adopted some forms of material culture from the Seminole Indians, including living in chickees, wearing Seminole clothing, straining koonti, a native root, and making sofkee, a paste created by mashing corn with a mortar and pestle. Living apart from the Indians, however, the maroons appear to have developed their own unique African American culture.

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Sources: Mulroy 20, Porter Black 6.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
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Seminole Slavery
Living Conditions
Afro-Indian Culture
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion