Rebellion 1812     
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Ad for slave auction, 1840
"Valuable Gang of Young Negroes," ad for a slave auction, 1840. Item # B0072. Emergence of Advertising in America. 2000. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University.
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At the time of John Horse's birth, the Black Seminoles were isolated geographically, but they were well aware of the political realities of the surrounding world, particularly the American South. Most of the maroons were, after all, refugees and descendants of refugees from chattel slavery. These men and women had personal knowledge of the institution's brutal nature and of their vastly preferable life in Spanish Florida. Unfortunately for them, the slaveholders of Georgia and South Carolina were equally aware of their favorable situation.

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Sources: Rivers 192-93.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
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Andrew Jackson
Negro Fort
First War
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Were all the Black Seminoles descendants of fugitive slaves?