Within months of the Negro Fort disaster, several hundred black troops were reported drilling for military exercises in Florida, vowing revenge on the U.S. and its Creek allies. In November 1817, Jackson launched a second, pre-emptive strike on the Seminoles, burning their settlements at Fowl Town. The Seminole nation rose in response, with an estimated 1,000 Indian and 400 black warriors taking the field to fight Jackson's army. They would face 3,500 men under Jackson, 2,000 of whom were Creek Indians.
Coker and Watson 309, ASPMA 1: 686-87, 732, 748-49, Mahon 24.
Part 1, Early Years: l