Rebellion June - July 1816     
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 The Suwannee River in Florida

The Suwannee River, Old Town Region, Florida. Photographed in 1925 by John Kunkel Small. Florida Photographic Collection.
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Negro Fort

Although the Black Seminoles in West Florida had suffered an inconsolable loss, their communities in East and Central Florida remained intact. Within days, the settlements on the Suwannee welcomed hundreds of refugees from the west. Young John Horse was living on the Suwannee, where he and his mother would have met the survivors. One can only imagine the grieving, the sense of loss for friends and relatives -- for a way of life that had briefly flowered on the banks of the Appalachicola. John Horse was only a child at the time, but the tragedy must have haunted his community and his imagination for years to come.

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Sources: Porter Black 18, 24, Coker and Watson 309. ©
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
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Andrew Jackson
Negro Fort
First War
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion