Rebellion April - May 1816     
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William McIntosh

William McIntosh, the Coweta Creek chief who colluded with Andrew Jackson to wage war on the Seminoles and lead slave raids against the maroons. Hand-colored lithograph from the McKenney-Hall History of the Indian tribes of North America (1858), after the 1825 painting by Charles Bird King.
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Since Spain was too weak either to help or hinder Jackson, the general gathered forces for an invasion. In keeping with U.S. policies since the 1790s, Jackson enlisted the aid of Creek warriors. He offered the Coweta Creek chief William McIntosh $50 a head for each American-owned slave his men could capture. The practice of sending Creeks against the Seminole maroons dated back to the Treaty of New York in 1790, with roots in the colonial-era slave trade. For the Black Seminoles, this policy would have lingering, terrifying consequences.

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Sources: Giddings Exiles 38-40, ASPFR 4: 553. ©
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
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Andrew Jackson
Negro Fort
First War
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion