Rebellion 1815 - 1816     
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Ruins of the Negro Fort
Earthwork ruins on the site of the Negro Fort, in the Appalachicola National Forest near Sumatra, Florida. Photograph from 1950. Florida Photographic Collection.
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The fort was viewed as a menace to all slaveholders in the vicinity. General Jackson was incensed. As commander of the Southeast, he issued an ultimatum to the Spanish governor: destroy the fort, seize the lawless “banditti” who manned it, and return all U.S. Negroes who had been “enticed from the service of their masters.” If not, Spain must face the consequences for harboring brigands: U.S. forces would invade Spanish territory and destroy the fort themselves.

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Sources: Twyman 97, Jackson 2: 241. ©
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
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Andrew Jackson
Negro Fort
First War
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Text of Jackson's ultimatum to the Spanish governor