Rebellion 1823 - 1826     
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Card depicting a fugitive slave
"In the Swamp," card depicting a runaway hiding from pursuers. Lithograph by H. L. Stephens circa 1863. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division,LC-USZC4-2522.
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Over the same period, the government was pressuring Indians to hand over plantation runaways. In 1823 and again in 1826, Seminole chiefs promised to surrender all fugitives within the nation. In theory, the promise applied only to recent runaways, not "Seminole Negroes" like John Horse and his family, who had long-standing ties to the tribe. But white men who claimed to be pursuing runaways were hardly concerned with the fine points of individual histories. The blacks, meanwhile, had developed an all-too clear view of American justice, based on the brutal slave raids of 1821.

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Sources: Sprague Origin 21, 65-67, ASPIA 2: 411, 429, Carter 23: 413-14, 472-73, Brown "Sarrazota".
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
spacer spacer Annexation
Moultrie Creek
Slave Raiders
Gopher John
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion